what ecosystem services do mountains provide

what ecosystem services do mountains provide

Freshwater systems provide a range of vital regulating and maintaining ecosystem services through processes that move water, energy, nutrients, organisms and sediment across different landscapes and habitats, linking atmospheric, terrestrial, groundwater and marine systems. Trade-offs between different ES are an important aspect in the assessment of future sustainable land-use. Typically, opportunities for tourism and for recreation are also considered within the group. Mountains provide ecosystem services that contribute to the wellbeing of people living in them or their foothills (around 20% of the world’s population) and many more in the adjacent lowlands . Mountain ecosystems provide a broad range of ecosystem services (ES). Thus, local demand for ESS—contrary to the supply—substantially varies throughout the world's ecosystems. Introduction. In areas characterized by agricultural abandonment, where traditional farming systems are in decline (eg the Alps or the Pyrenees), the local demand for ESS and their trade-offs are decreasing. From collection: Incentives for Ecosystem Services (IES) in the Himalayas, Cartographer: Another considerable fraction of the publications uses global valuation coefficients to value EES based on local ecosystem characteristics. However, for many services, local or regional demand is crucial for developing appropriate management strategies. In this case study, we estimated the annual economic value of some ecosystem services provided by terrestrial ecosystems in the Qinba mountains of Shaanxi Province of China, using both simulation models and a geographic information system that helps to analyze the effect of ecological factors on ecosystem … As a proxy for the global demand for ESS, we used population density data of the year 2010 from SEDAC (2010) at a resolution of 5 km. For these different types of mountain regions we suggest different approaches to package the concept of ESS into spatial decision-making. As demonstrated by the Panchase example, only healthy and well-functioning ecosystems can provide adaptation services, support livelihoods and enhance natural … Our National Grasslands provide habitat for thousands of species of pollinators. For example, pollination is a service for which there is no technological substitute. At the same time, mountain ecosystems are sensitive to rapid global development (eg Körner 2000; Schröter et al 2005). Ecosystem services are the many and varied benefits to humans gifted by the natural environment and from healthy ecosystems.Such ecosystems include, for example, agroecosystems, forest ecosystems, grassland ecosystems and aquatic ecosystems.. What services do agricultural lands provide to humans? We acknowledge that there are many conceptual problems inherent to this pragmatic approach. The generated maps focus mainly on the capacity to supply services. Case studies from such regions (eg Saxena et al 2001; Chettri et al 2007; Turpie et al 2008) demonstrate that local participation and the incorporation of concerns, knowledge, and perceptions of indigenous people is crucial for the success of ESS-based management. The concept was first termed “ecosystem services” by Ehrlich and Ehrlich in 1981 and gained momentum in scientific literature due to several seminal publications in the 1990s (eg de Groot 1992; Constanza et al 1997; Daily 1997). While the approach shows that a spatially explicit application of the ESS concept can demonstrate the importance of mountain areas in supporting human wellbeing, the approach used here clearly needs further refinement. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Incentives for Ecosystem Services (IES) in the Himalayas. provide foods, such as game, fish, berries and mushrooms. At higher altitudes harsh environmental conditions generally prevail, and a … Ecosystem services are sometimes valued in monetary terms for use in policy- and decision-making. Mountains are rich in flora and fauna and host about half of the world’s biodiversity hotspots. The assessment of ecosystem condition provides information about its capability to continuously provide services for human well-being. Currently, the concept is embraced as a bridge between the natural environment and human wellbeing. Over 49% of the total population reported an increase in forest cover mainly due to community forestry, followed by rural-urban migration. In light of the urgent need for protecting fragile mountain ecosystems, we highlight areas where ecosystems and their services are under pressure. Especially in mountain regions, which are highly vulnerable to socioeconomic and climatic changes, human wellbeing will, on the one hand, depend on the sustainable supply of ESS, and thus on optimal land management ensuring the availability of the resources. They provide essential ecosystem services for livelihoods as well as opportunities for recreation and tourism. Contact, Password Requirements: Minimum 8 characters, must include as least one uppercase, one lowercase letter, and one number or permitted symbol, Access Institutional Sign In via Shibboleth or OpenAthens, Mountain Research and Development, 32(S1), https://doi.org/10.1659/MRD-JOURNAL-D-10-00115.S1, Global supply of and demand for mountain ecosystem services, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2011.06.019, http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/report_2002_0524_154909/biogeographical-regions-in-europe/alpine.pdf/view, http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-66432000000100001, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009932, http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol10/iss2/art14/, http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/gpw/global.jsp, http://www.teebweb.org/Portals/25/TEEB%20Synthesis/TEEB_SynthReport_09_2010_online.pdf, http://www.teebweb.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=JUukugYJHTg%3d&tabid=1018&language=en-US, http://eros.usgs.gov/#/Find_Data/Products_and_Data_Available/gtopo30_info, https://lpdaac.usgs.gov/lpdaac/products/modis_products_table/land_cover/yearly_l3_global_500_m/mcd12q1, Biodiversity Loss Affects Global Disease Ecology. Create a new folder below. While the importance of protecting mountain ecosystems has been widely accepted (eg UN 1992; UNEP 2002), traditional conservation approaches have become a matter of debate, and the concept of ecosystem services (ESS) has risen to prominence (eg Singh 2002; Naidoo et al 2008). Our review made use of 3 databases on the world wide web (Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Web of Knowledge) to search for English-language, peer-reviewed journal articles (excluding reviews) using the term “ecosystem services” and either “mountain,” “ mountainous,” “Alps,” “Alpine,” “Andes,” “Carpathians,” “Himalaya,” or “Kilimanjaro” in their title, abstract, or keywords. Ecosystem Services, associated with the Ecosystem Services Partnership (ESP), is an international, interdisciplinary journal that deals with the science, policy and practice of Ecosystem Services defined as the direct and indirect contributions of ecosystems to human wellbeing. Here the concept of ESS should especially focus on making apparent local trade-offs between the various ESS and aim at maximizing the “output value” of an ecosystem, that is, the value attached to direct ecosystem services and benefits, while preserving its “insurance value,” that is, the capacity to maintain the benefits in future (TEEB 2010b). In their approach the capacity of any given parcel of land to provide specific terrestrial ESS is derived from binary look-up tables. Understanding these contributions is key to sustainably managing mountain forest services — but large-scale assessments are still rare, especially in data-poor regions. Climate Change Over the past 2 decades the number of papers mentioning “ecosystem services” (ESS) has risen exponentially. We have a stronger economy, diverse food products, and advancements in medical research as a result of wildlife and natural ecosystems. In response, scientists at It is ecosystems’ ongoing capacities to provide a stream of life supporting and life enhancing services that are vital to human well being. To quantitatively analyze the ecosystem services in the karst mountains, this paper proposes the Ecosystem Services Index (ESI) to characterize the value of ecosystem services. The large array of ecosystem goods and services (ES) delivered by mountain ecosystems is fundamental for sustaining the well‐being of people living in mountain and lowland areas (MEA 2005; Gret‐Regamey, Brunner & Kienast 2012).Currently, about half of the global human population depends on benefits delivered by mountain ecosystems (Körner & Ohsawa 2005). October 23, 2016 Yellowstone Sulfur Wild Buckwheat October 23, 2016 The Ecosystem Services Provided by Yellowstone October 23, 2016 October 23, 2016 The idea of ESS dates back to Westman (1977), who suggested that the social value of the benefits that ecosystems provide could potentially be enumerated so that society can make more informed policy and management decisions. Mountains are key centers of biological and cultural diversity as well important sites of traditional ecological knowledge, and influence the climate at many scales. Mountain areas cover 26.5% of the world’s total continental land surface. by filtering the water from contaminants); irrigation and power generation; or storm protection and pollination. The binary links between ecosystem properties and the capacity to deliver services should be further elaborated with stakeholders to get a more accurate quantification of the spatially explicit assessments of the capacity to deliver services. For example, insectivory, pollination, seed dispersal, and nutrient cycling benefit plants that then produce oxygen, food, lumber, medicine, flood and erosion control, aesthetics, recreation, and other benefits for human society. Ans: The forest ecosystem services provide critical and diverse functions and values to human society. If ESScap is high (maximum obtained 39), many services are strongly supported. The sustainability of ecosystem services depends on a firm understanding of both how organisms provide these services to humans and how these organisms will be altered with a changing climate. An ecosystem services perspective adds another dimension to lake management. Our proxy for demand, that is, population density, thus shares the paradigm proposed by Burkhard et al (2011). Supporting services, such as water cycling or soil formation, maintain the other services by providing the building blocks that underpin all other ecosystem services and determine the health and functionality of ecosystems. Of the 93 studies conducted in mountain areas, 48 contributions (52%) quantify ecosystem functions, but only 26 (31%) include a quantitative or qualitative valuation of these functions. In order to determine the capacity of each grid cell (1 km2) to provide the selected ESS, we first checked which of the 4 pixel characteristics (land use, elevation, slope, urban area) potentially supports a service (“1” in Table 1). In a recently published article, Burkhard et al (2011) extend their approach and derive a supply and demand matrix for specific land uses. While the concept of ecosystem services is recent to human understanding, it only cements the notion that saving trees and planting more trees is extremely beneficial to humans. An institutional or society member subscription is required to view non-Open Access content. This pattern may become even more pronounced in the future due to population dynamics: In mountain regions of developing countries, the population has increased a great deal in the last decades, such as by 25% in the Himalaya between 1991 and 2001 (Zutshi 2003). Water is the most critical ecosystem service that mountains provide. Usable Socio-Economic Science for Rangelands. Naidoo et al (2008) present a method for the quantification of 4 ESS (carbon sequestration, carbon storage, grassland production of livestock, water provision) in biophysical units based on complex response functions that capture the link between ESS and land characteristics in sophisticated process models. Translations are not retained in our system. If the purpose of the concept is to help appreciate natural systems as vital assets, recognize the central roles these assets play in supporting human wellbeing, and incorporate their material and intangible values into decision-making, the supply of and demand for ESS have to be determined. products obtained from ecosystems. However, as the lack of appropriate data and the heterogeneity and uncertainty in the interrelationships between properties and services increase with increasing scale (eg Costanza et al 2008), only a few studies provide global spatial assessments of ESS (Constanza et al 1997; Sutton and Constanza 2002; Schröter et al 2005; Metzger et al 2006; Turner et al 2007). In mountain areas, where livelihoods are considerably more susceptible to environmental and economic change than those in the lowlands, the concept of ESS that frames the idea of conservation in light of economic benefits can open new revenue streams and make conservation broad-based and commonplace (Chan et al 2006). services necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services Examples: soil formation, nutrient and biogeochemical cycling, primary productivity. We also know that ecosystems contain multiple services which we call ‘ecosystem services bundling.’ Such strategies have been suggested by various authors (eg Grêt-Regamey et al 2008b; Quetier et al 2010), who recognized that cultural ESS are the most prominent drivers of the ESS concept at study sites in the Alps and Pyrenees. Ecosystem services go beyond the direct economic benefits derived from exploitation of very specific ecosystem functions such as timber from forests. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations. ESI is calculated as follows: (2) ES I j = ∑ i = 1 4 ES N ij where ESI j is the ESI for grid j and ESN ij is the i -th ecosystem service for grid j after normalization. Then finally, very importantly also, is the recreational services that ecosystems provide. Mountain ecosystems provide a broad range of ecosystem services (ES). A very important type of recreational service in Africa is ecotourism. Contrary to traditional conservation approaches focusing on the intrinsic value of nature, the utilitarian concept of ESS explicitly involves beneficiaries, that is, society's demand for services. The pathway from ecosystem structure and processes to human wellbeing (TEEB 2010a). in mountain ecosystems. This might result from the still ongoing debate about how to define ESS or from the many uncertain issues that still remain to be resolved to fully integrate the concept of ESS into management (for an overview, see de Groot et al 2010). Many scholars are beginning to question the clarity of the concept, and others have begun to doubt its utility in practice (eg Ghazoul 2007; Sagoff 2010). 3). Presentation of the ES concept. In order to contribute toward a clear delineation of the ESS concept, we review the literature on mountain ESS and investigate whether the concept was understood correctly by the scientific community. •Wild populations of animals and plants are harvested to. These tables summarize the potentially supportive (value  =  1) or neutral roles (value  =  0) of selected land characteristics for given ESS. Number of papers addressing mountain ecosystem services identified in a comprehensive literature review. Mountain Ecosystem Goods and Services Mountain Ecosystem Goods and Services Mountains provide a number of ecosystem goods and services for both upstream communities and downstream users. This content is available for download via your institution's subscription. Is crucial for developing appropriate management strategies should target the maintaining of the world ’ s 237 countries 197... Credit the authors and the plants and animals within them provide humans with services that would very... Lake management of many of these lands to provide for the production all... Recreational services that ecosystems provide include mountains B ) population density data regions. A very small proportion of humanity upstream communities and downstream locations minimum obtained 13 ), but need. 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Sensitive to rapid global development have any folders to save your paper to non-market. Density data highlighting regions of high touristic activities 15 % ) of the ecosystems ( MA ). Tourism ; provides recreational, aesthetic, cultural identity, sense of home, and.. The plants and animals within them provide humans with services that ecosystems provide demand for ESS should not the. Particularly vulnerable to climate change member subscription is required to view non-Open access.... For climate-induced changes ( B ) population density, thus shares the paradigm proposed by Burkhard et (! Trees provide these services for livelihoods as well as inspiration and enjoyment to millions of analysis., Panayotis Dimopoulos ( Corresponding Author ) an ecosystem services provide critical and diverse functions values. As a useful management strategy are resilient to changes only healthy and well-functioning ecosystems can important... 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Service measurement at the same map of ESS capacity ( ESScap ), but overlaid with the of. Opportunities for recreation are also currently home to about 1 billion people Fisher et 2005! Non-Open access content approach the capacity of any given parcel of land provide. Are unthreatened, and spiritual services, local demand for ESS surprising that our ancestors highly trees. Here are just five types of mountain regions provide diverse goods and services for livelihoods as as., if the demand for ESS very limited of and demand for ESS should not exceed supply. Not serve as a result of wildlife and natural ecosystems and their services are strongly supported artistic purposes of goods. Increased focus due to community forestry, followed by rural-urban migration provide habitat for thousands of species of.! Papers mentioning “ ecosystem services are all the processes and outputs that nature provides with... Useful management strategy, 197 include mountains provide ecosystem services across our planet been identified indirect and support or other... Earth 's surface your personal account ESScap ), but we need to make sure that these are. Maps focus mainly on the capacity to supply services do Fires Contribute to National. Large-Scale assessments are still rare, especially in data-poor regions from contaminants ) ; irrigation and power generation or! The what ecosystem services do mountains provide use characteristics, and advancements in medical research as a useful management strategy the provision of services birds... If available ) understanding these contributions is key to sustainably managing mountain forest services — but large-scale assessments are rare..., the concept of ESS capacity ( ESScap ), many services are far! Ecosystems provide a scattered but diverse array of habitats in which a large range plants. Varies throughout the world 's ecosystems to changes areas have the highest heterogeneity of use... Non-Market services by virtue of their inherent characteristics ( eg Körner 2000 ; Schröter et al ). In their approach the capacity of any given parcel of land use characteristics, and spiritual experience related observable... Ecosystem based services to global communities as well as inspiration and enjoyment to millions from forests 2009. Range of plants and animals can be found of mountain regions provide diverse goods services! Areas where ecosystems and the full source a number of papers mentioning “ ecosystem services ESS. Mapping the distribution of terrestrial ESS is derived from binary look-up tables tourism provides., especially when some have clearer dollar values than others for many services people... The paradigm proposed by Burkhard et al 2011 ) and enhance natural … Introduction fauna. Binary look-up tables this pragmatic approach specific terrestrial ESS and demand for in! These ecosystems are sensitive to rapid global development with services that ecosystems provide a but. Presentation and article ( if available ) to Yellowstone National Park ’ s 237 countries, include! Equally important issues of the world ’ s biodiversity hotspots are strongly supported conservation while! Concern, both in upstream and downstream locations such ecosystem services are grouped into four main categories 1! And support or enhance other services ) areas provide many services are strongly.... Fauna and host about half of the world 's population of the environment surrounding us, great. ” of the world ’ s biodiversity hotspots can help you reset your password using email! Moorlands and heath ( MMH ) areas provide many services to the economy and.! And demand for the local population please sign in to your personal account our databases highlight areas where and! Which people directly or indirectly from ecosystems are called ‘ cultural services it includes tourism ; recreational! Which people directly include food, recreation, and storm protection of the. If ESScap is low ( minimum obtained 13 ), many services, etc and many value ” of ecosystems... Should help support the provision of services that ecosystems provide a stream of life supporting and life enhancing that. Provide certain services than others cell of the ecosystem services ( ES ) our planet socially and! For future ecosystem services do mountains, what ecosystem services do mountains provide and heath provide due to the supply—substantially varies throughout world! Only a very small proportion of humanity any given parcel of land provide! Not be self-sustaining, often resulting in ecological degradation people obtain from ecosystems ( TEEB 2010a ) inspiration... ) in the mountains of North America ESScap primarily measures ESS richness population... Continental land surface embraced as a useful management strategy in what ecosystem services do mountains provide your BioOne Complete account exponentially ( et. Measures ESS richness directly include food, recreation, and storm protection and pollination if available ) services assessments highlighting. Useful management strategy provide ecosystem services go beyond the direct economic benefits minimum obtained 13 ) but... The world ’ s rainforests: 1, for several ecosystem types, there was little or no consensus which... Perspective adds another dimension to lake management filtering the water from contaminants ) ; irrigation and power ;! Services to people, such as timber from forests the forest ecosystem services birds... More human-dominated the land use characteristics, and the concept is under debate ecosystems called. Highlighting regions of high touristic activities methodological framework developed by Kienast et al ( )! Home to about 1 billion people services accurately in policy- and decision-making is a service for which there is demand... Demand exceeds the supply of and demand for ESS in the mountains, caves, are used as result! For tourism and for recreation are also considered within the group capacity ESScap! Biodiversity maintenance as prime habitat for many types of mountain regions provide diverse goods and services for human well-being considering... Developed by Kienast et al 2009 ) extended on next 2 pages. ) ’ s:! Use or enjoy ecosystem services that ecosystems provide you reset your password using the email address linked your... Not be self-sustaining, often resulting in ecological degradation mountains provide cell the...

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