The most notable one is the Fieldfare – another thrush species that only occurs here in winter. , The mistle thrush is the largest thrush native to Europe. It is a large thrush with pale grey-brown upper parts, a greyish-white chin and throat, and black spots on its pale yellow and off-white under parts. in the fork of a tree but it will also use shrubs and holes in walls.  The chicks are altricial and downy, and are fed by both parents. They roost at night in trees or bushes, again typically as individuals or pairs, except in late summer or autumn when families may roost together. "Tha' art as safe as a missel thrush.". Canon 7d / Sigma 150-600mm F5-6.3 Contemporary Song and Mistle Thrush are two garden species that are readily confused; both are grey brown in appearance; both have a spotted breast and pale legs. The song is, however, much louder, often audible up to 2 km (2,000 yd) away. Passeriformes, Family:  The eggs are incubated for 12–15 days, mainly by the female. The largest thrush species in the UK, the mistle thrush measures around 28cm in length. , External parasites of the mistle thrush include the hen flea, the moorhen flea, the castor bean tick and the brightly coloured harvest mite. Publish date: 18/09/2012. Given its high numbers and very large range, this thrush is therefore classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as being of least concern. in Ireland - Robins in Ireland - Rooks  Turdus is the Latin for "thrush", and viscivorus, "mistletoe eater", comes from viscum "mistletoe" and vorare, "to devour". It poses proudly upright with long wings The mistle thrush (Turdus viscivorus) is a bird common to much of Europe, temperate Asia and North Africa. winter Mistle Thrushes feed largely on berries such as such as yew, 1842 Near Bandon, shot, 5th December, now at Trinity College, Dublin. Thrushes in Ireland - Mute Swans in Ireland "Holm thrush", "hollin cock" and "holm cock" are based on obsolete names for the holly tree, which may be defended by the thrush in winter for its berries. Not to be confused with: the song thrush, which …  The song may be heard in any month, although it is uncommon from July to August while the thrush is moulting.  In areas of intensive farming, such as eastern England, arable land has in turn largely been abandoned in favour of built-up areas with their greater variety of green habitats. The sexes are similar in plumage, and its three subspeciesshow only minimal differences. The male has a loud, far-carrying song which is delivered even in wet and windy weather, earning the bird the old name of stormcock. They will often vigorously defend a favoured It has pale grey-brown upperparts, the chin and throat are greyish-white, and the yellowish-buff breast and off-white belly are marked with round black spots. Thrushes build a bulky grass-lined nest consisting of grass, roots, The reasons for this expansion are unclear. , There are more than 60 species of medium to large thrushes in the genus Turdus, characterised by rounded heads, longish pointed wings, and usually melodious songs. Given its high numbers and very large range, this thrush is classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as being of least concern. they are fed by both the hen and cock. In this, the latest identification video from the BTO, we offer tips on how to confidently separate these engaging thrushes. It stands boldly upright and bounds across the ground.  The trees are defended against other thrushes as well as birds such as the bullfinch and great spotted woodpecker. Every winter our resident blackbirds, song thrushes and mistle thrushes are joined by an influx of visiting northern European thrushes: fieldfare and redwing. Incubation (days): M & F: 130g.  Courtship feeding of the female by her partner has sometimes been observed. 14-17 Territories are normally reoccupied in subsequent years. (but rarely snails). The larger, Mistle Thrush-sized Fieldfare has a grey head, a brown back, a grey lower back and a black tail. Nesting: The mistle thrush is an exception and will sing at all times of day, whatever the weather. , The male mistle thrush has a loud melodious song with fluted whistles, sounding like chewee-trewuu ... trureetruuruu or similar, repeated three to six times, and used to advertise his territory, attract a mate and maintain the pair bond. The Mistle thrush is a bird common to much of Europe, parts of Asia, and North Africa. 2 (occasionally 3) of Clutches: Redwings are a little like Song Thrushes but show a striking creamy white supercilium over the eye and a splash of orange-red on the flanks. As well as its larger size, the Mistle Thrush often appears more plump-bellied than its smaller relative and it has a proportionally longer tail. The In the western Himalayas it could be confused with both the plain-backed and the long-tailed thrushes. Northern races are strongly migratory, with most birds moving… - Great Tits in Ireland - Grey A key player in the acclaimed “Dawn Chorus”, this attractive speckled thrush is a familiar sight in many Irish gardens, and according to Birdwatch Ireland’s annual Garden Bird Survey features regularly as one of our top 20 garden species. Lifespan: - Blue Tits in Ireland - Coal Diet: The most notable one is the Fieldfare – another thrush species that only occurs here in winter. These two winter thrushes are easily told from each other. Distribution: It breeds in wet coniferous taiga, mainly in eastern Asia and Siberia. After breeding it may join nomadic flocks searching the moorland and countryside for food.  Other names, including "stormcock" referred to its willingness to sing in wind and rain. The male has a loud, far-carrying so…  In the winter 2017/2018 the first record of a mistle thrush for North America was at Miramichi in New Brunswick. Sometimes, as in this nest, the bird may incorporate bits of string or twine.  Their territories are much larger than those of blackbirds or song thrushes; although the nest territory is only about 0.6 hectares (1.5 acres), around 15–17 ha (37–42 acres) is used for feeding. , Perhaps the most notable find of the 118th Christmas Bird Count in Canada was a single vagrant mistle thrush found in Miramichi, New Brunswick. Breeding typically commences in mid-March in the south and west of Europe (late February in Britain), but not till early May in Finland. and relatively powerful. 4 The southern form T. v. deichleri is resident in North Africa, Corsica and Sardinia. , Although the population now appears to be declining, the decrease is not rapid or large enough to trigger conservation vulnerability criteria. (Thompson I:128) This is the first Irish Record. its breast and belly.  There is also a squeaky tuk contact call. This was the first record for this species in North America.  The mistle thrush is not normally a host of the common cuckoo, a brood parasite. Turdus viscivorus, Order: at the top of a tree, singing its fluty song. No. In these warmer southern areas, it tends to be found in the milder uplands and coastal regions. Britain & Ireland Western Palearctic World Review of the Week Travel . Where mistletoe is not present, holly is the most common tree chosen. It is large, aggressive Male and Females are alike with warm brown upper parts, pale buff underparts with dark speckles and a tinge of golden brown on the breast. Mistle In the fourth century Aristotle was already writing about its fondness for mistletoe and there is an old belief that Mistle thrushes could speak seven languages! In  Blood parasites can include Trypanosoma and Plasmodium species. Life expectancy is typically three years, but the maximum age recorded from bird ringing recoveries is 21 years and 3 months for a bird shot in Switzerland. It has greyish-brown upperparts, a long tail and a plump white belly with heavy, dark brown spots. The accepted subspecies as of 2000 are:, An isolated population in Crimea has sometimes been separated as T. v. tauricus, but this is not considered to be a valid form.  , Mistle Thrush and Alpine Chough, by Giovanni da Udine, an artist who worked in Raphael's studio in the 16th century, was a sketch for his Bird with Garland and Fruit, and this in turn was the basis for a Raphael fresco in the Apostolic Palace. The highly nutritious fruits are favoured by the thrush, which digests the flesh leaving the sticky seeds to be excreted, possibly in a suitable location for germination.  It is not uncommon for up to 50 thrushes to feed together at that time of year. Scientific Call: blackbird but less melodic. can be confused with the smaller Song Irish word for mistle thrush is Liatráisc. From 1 year Seabirds; Countryside & Wetland birds; Research & Surveys. Flocks of thrushes, probably migrant redwings and fieldfares, along with our local song and mistle thrushes. The  In Finland, the loss of ancient forests is thought to have led to a local decline. By their first winter they are very similar to adults, but the underparts are usually more buff-toned. The final verse of the Jethro Tull song "Jack-in-the-Green" from their album Songs from the Wood mentions the bird in the lines "Oh, the mistlethrush is coming. , The mistle thrush is a partial migrant: birds from the north and east of the range wintering in the milder areas of Europe and North Africa. shell makes up 6% of that weight. , Young birds are initially mainly fed on invertebrates, often collected from low foliage or under bushes rather than in the grassland preferred by the adults. The song thrush is one of Ireland's top 20 most widespread garden birds.  More open habitats, such as agricultural land, moors and grassy hills, are extensively used in winter or on migration. The undersides of the rowan, hawthorn and holly. Nominate T. v. viscivorus breeds in Europe and in Asia east to the Ob, beyond which it is replaced by T. v. bonapartei. Our wintering Fieldfares … , The mistle thrush breeds in much of Europe and temperate Asia, although it is absent from the treeless far north, and its range becomes discontinuous in southeast Europe, Turkey and the Middle East. Resident, Length:  The song of the mistle thrush is also described in Thomas Hardy's "Darkling Thrush" and Edward Thomas's "The Thrush". , In Frances Hodgson Burnett's The Secret Garden, Dickon reassures Mary Lennox that he will keep his knowledge of the garden secret by comparing her to a mistle thrush in defence of its nest, recognising his privilege in sharing her secret: "If tha' was a missel thrush an' showed me where thy nest was, does tha' think I'd tell any one? penchant for mistletoe, though it will aggressively defend any fruiting Jack, put out the light." , The mistle thrush is found in a wide range of habitats containing trees, including forests, plantations, hedges and town parks. It is large, aggressive and relatively powerful. Invertebrates, and berries in autumn and winter. , Adults have a full moult after breeding, beginning between late May and the end of June, and completed by early October. Animal prey include earthworms, insects and other arthropods, slugs and snails. 15-16 in Ireland - Mallards in Ireland - Mistle Click on the flag to view more images from Northern Ireland's Dawn Chorus. The nest site may be up to 20 m (66 ft) above the ground, although 2–9 m (6.6–29.5 ft) is more typical. , The mistle thrush is much larger, paler and longer-tailed than the sympatric song thrush. Juveniles are similar to adults, but they have paler upperparts with creamy centres to many of the feathers and smaller spots on the yellowish underparts. The common chaffinch often nests close to a mistle thrush, the vigilance of the chaffinch and the aggressive behaviour of the thrush benefiting both species. Mistle Thrushes in Ireland. The southern race T. v. deichleri resembles bonapartei in appearance, but is closer in size to the nominate viscivorus, although it has a more slender bill. in Ireland - Wrens in Ireland, Irish Rare Birds . The construction is strengthed with mud and thickly lined with finer grasses. , The mistle thrush has an extensive distribution in Europe and western Asia, and its European breeding population is estimated at 9–22.2 million birds. The nest is built by the female, although the male may help. Mistle thrush. - Longtailed Tits in Ireland - Magpies After the young hatch out It forages within its breeding habitat and in open fields, sometimes sharing these feeding areas with redwings or fieldfares. In flight, it has long wings and its tail has whitish edges. In the south and east of its range, it inhabits upland coniferous woodland and the range extends above the main tree line where dwarf juniper is present. The open cup nest is built against a trunk or in a forked branch, and is fearlessly defended against potential predators, sometimes including humans or cats. It has pale grey-brown upperparts, the chin and throat are greyish-white, and the yellowish-buff breast and off-white belly are marked with round black spots. Our wintering Fieldfares … , There is evidence that this species has changed its natural habitat in at least parts of its range. Since 1975, a total of eight species of Thrush have been ringed in Ireland. Country: Northern Ireland.  Sometimes the same nest is reused for both broods. , Plant food includes the fruits and seeds of bushes and trees, mainly holly, yew, ivy and mistletoe, but also, for example, blackberry, cherry, elder, hawthorn, olive and rose. The western, nominate race is replaced by bonapartei in central Siberia and the mountains of central Asia, and by deichleri in northwest Africa, Corsica and Sardinia. The sexes are similar in plumage, and its three subspecies show only minimal differences. Habitat: The fieldfare, the larger of the two visitors, is about the size of our resident mistle thrush and is appropriately named ‘sacán’ in Irish – the frost bird. Thrush but it is bigger and paler and has bolder spotting on It is quite likely to be observed high at the top of a tree, singing its fluty song.  Conversely, in hard winters, the defender may be overwhelmed by large flocks of fieldfares, redwings or Bohemian waxwings. Loud rattle 'prrrrt' when alarmed.  The discovery attracted many birders from Canada and the United States; sightings continued from early December 2017 through late March 2018. , Mistle thrushes breed in the year subsequent to their hatching; they are monogamous and stay as a pair throughout the year in areas where they are not migratory. When Asian breeders are added, this gives a global total of 12.2–44.4 million. The long tail has white tips on the outer feathers, and the underwing coverts are white. , The mistle thrush is predated upon by a wide variety of birds of prey, including the boreal owl, short-eared owl, tawny owl, Ural owl, Eurasian eagle-owl, golden eagle, kestrel, common buzzard, red kite, northern goshawk, peregrine falcon, and sparrowhawk. , As its name implies, the mistle thrush is important in propagating the mistletoe, an aerial parasite, which needs its seeds to be deposited on the branches of suitable trees. Return migration starts mainly from late March, although it can be a month earlier in the Middle East, and northern breeders may not arrive back on their territories until late April or early May. These are similar to the mistle thrush, but the plain–backed thrush lacks obvious wing bars, is more rufous above than its relative, and is barred rather than spotted below. It is a year-round resident in a large part of its range, but northern and eastern populations migrate south for the winter, often in small flocks. Each egg weighs 7.8g of which Mistle Thrush This large thrush breeds from Morocco, Ireland and Norway east to Lake Baikal, western Mongolia and western Nepal. The spotting becomes denser on the lower chest, giving the appearance of a breast-band. It may eat the flowers and shoots of grasses and other plants, and will take fallen apples and plums. It is smaller than it's relatives the Mistle Thrush or the Blackbird.  Internally, they can suffer from parasites including tapeworm, nematodes, and Syngamus merulae (a species of Gapeworm).  In the highlands of Europe, its preferred altitude is from 800–1,800 m (2,600–5,900 ft). Adults will roam up to 1 km (approximately 1,100 yards) from the nest on pasture or ploughed land.  It has a stocky upright posture when on the ground. It is a large thrush with pale grey-brown upper parts, a greyish-white chin and throat, and black spots on its pale yellow and off-white under parts.  It is often likened to the sound of a football rattle, a form of musical ratchet.  The male will attack intruders into its breeding area, including birds of prey and corvids, and sometimes cats or humans. Mistle thrushes are widespread in the UK, but as they prefer areas with big trees and short grass during the breeding season, they’re less likely than song thrushes to nest in small gardens. Turdidae, Irish  The perceived decline may be due to the loss of invertebrate-rich pastures and mixed farms through conversion to arable agriculture or more intensively managed grassland. 3 years, Conservation wing beats interspersed with short glides. Tits in Ireland - Goldfinches in Ireland After fledging the young may accompany their parents until the onset of winter. Our Work – Species & Habitat Conservation.  The average size of the egg is 30 mm × 22 mm (1.18 in × 0.87 in), and weighs 7.8 g (0.28 oz), of which 6% is shell. , Desiderius Erasmus's early sixteenth-century collection of Latin proverbs included Turdus malum sibi ipse cacat, (the thrush himself excretes his own trouble), which refers to the use of the sticky mistletoe berries favoured by this species as an ingredient in birdlime, used to trap birds. Breeds in open woodland or other places with tall trees for nesting and short grass for foraging. It is paler grey above and whiter below, with fewer black spots. Breeding occurs at up to 600 m (2,000 ft) in the mountains of North Africa, and occasionally much higher, to 1,700 m (5,600 ft). At 26-29cm, the Mistle Thrush is one of the larger thrushes, being slightly larger than a Blackbird and noticeably larger than the Song Thrush. , Mistle thrushes feed mainly on invertebrates, fruit and berries. in Ireland - Song Thrushes in Ireland This is a resident species, and is found all over Ireland throughout the year. , At least eight subspecies have been proposed, but the differences between them are mainly clinal, with birds being paler and less densely spotted in the east of the range. Name: Scandinavian and Russian birds start moving south from mid-September onwards, most birds wintering in Europe, western Turkey and the Middle East. In winter, a mistle thrush will vigorously defend mistletoe clumps or a holly tree as a food reserve for when times are hard. flight the Mistle Thrush usually flies at tree top height with several Breeding birds in the British Isles and north-west Europe are resident or move only short distances. and its tail has pale edges. In Ireland it was believed that the faeries made sure that the thrush built its nest low down near the fairies home in the grass so that they could enjoy the birds … There are normally two broods. The Song Thrush is also less upright when standing. Three species were either introduced to Ireland or came to Ireland from another introduced population. The chicks fledge about 14–16 days after hatching. 27cm Wingspan: 45cm Weight:  The loud call of this common and conspicuous bird also led to many old or local names, including "screech", "shrite" and "gawthrush". Breeding Age:  The eggs and chicks may be targeted by cats and corvids. White’s Thrush Zoothera dauma Rare vagrant. - Pheasants in Ireland - Puffins The most notable one is the Fieldfare – another thrush species that only occurs here in winter.  The species was formerly more restricted in range, and rarely bred even in northern England in the 1700s. mistle thrush is resident throughout Ireland.  A mitochondrial DNA study identified the mistle thrush's closest relatives as the similarly plumaged song and Chinese thrushes; these three species are early offshoots from the Eurasian lineage of Turdus thrushes after they spread north from Africa. The nominate subspecies measures 27–28 cm (11–11 in) in length, with a 45 cm (18 in) wingspan. Our wintering Fieldfares …  Snails are sometimes smashed on a stone "anvil", a technique also used by the song thrush. The long-tailed thrush has olive-toned upperparts, bars on its breast and two wing bars. Fledging (days): , Mistle thrushes are found as individuals or pairs for much of the year, although families forage together in late summer, and groups may merge to form large flocks when food sources are plentiful. There are normally two broods, except in Siberia, where there is only one, the male feeding the fledglings from the first brood while the female sits on the second clutch. Number of Eggs: mistle thrush is a pale, black-spotted thrush. , The mistle thrush is quite terrestrial, hopping with its head held up and body erect; when excited, it will flick its wings and tail. approximately 30mm X 22mm in size. There are no plumage differences between the sexes. February to May Status in Ireland: Green. Redwing are the smallest species of thrush that we have in Ireland and they’re often joined on migration and in feeding flocks by other thrushes. However, Redwing can be confused with Song Thrush, whilst Fieldfare is similar in size and appearance to Mistle Thrush.  Vagrant birds have occurred in the Azores, China, Crete, Faroe Islands, Iceland, Japan, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Sikkim and the United Arab Emirates. in Ireland - Swans in Tallaght - Swans Breeding and Nesting  The mistle thrush has been known to kill slowworms and the young of the song thrush, blackbird and dunnock.  The main call, given by both sexes, is a dry chattering krrrr, louder when it is alarmed or excited. Migration may be by day or night, and typically involves individuals or small groups. The song is given from a treetop or other elevated position mainly from November to early June. There was a range expansion in the 18th and early 19th centuries, and a small decline in recent decades, perhaps due to changes in agricultural practices. female incubates the eggs by herself.  The tone resembles that of the song thrush or blackbird, but compared to its relatives the mistle thrush's repertoire is less varied and the delivery is slower. It is a year-round resident in a large part of its range, but northern and eastern populations migrate south for the winter, often in small flocks. They tend to nest quite deep down, building a ball of a nest tucked away in the vegetation. 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